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Nios Solved Assignment 2020-21 जीव विज्ञान/Biology (314) in PDF 12th Class

Get Nios Solved Assignments 2020-2021 Senior Secondary (12th) In PDF format All NIOS TMA answers are available in Computerized Typing so students can easily understand and face no problems when copying from My Online Nios Solved Assignment 2020-21

1. Answer any one of the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) Standy Miller and Harold C Urey performed an experiment in which they created conditions of the atmosphere as on primitive earth. Name the gases that were used in this experiment, the source of energy used and three kind of organic compounds produced.


(b) Differentiate between phogocytosis and pinocytosis in regard to the nature of and the manner in which the material is taken in.

Basis for Comparison





Pinocytosis is called cell drinking, substance is directly ingested as it is in dissolved form and ready for cellular absorption.

Phagocytosis is called cell eating, in which particles are broken down into simpler substance with the help of enzymes for absorption.

Process of engulfing

By Invagination.

By pseudopodia (false feet).

Kind of particles ingested






Substrate specific

Pinocytosis is not substrate specific and cell takes all kind of surrounding fluids with all solutes present.


Phagocytosis is specific in substrate it transport.



Pinocytosis is used for intake of materials.

Phagocytosis is used for defensive purpose by engulfing the foreign particles.

Vesicles formed



Role of Lysosomes


No role of lysosomes.

Lysosomes combine with phagosomes for the formation of food vacuole.

Types of particles intake

Sugars, ions, amino acids, enzymes, hormones, etc.

Foreign particles, harmful bacteria and virus, dust, etc.

Where it happens

Pinocytosis usually occurs in secretory cells, cell linings of

blood capillaries.

Phagocytosis is performmed by neutrophills, macrophages

and protozoans.

2. Answer any one of the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) A drop of blood is collected by the police from the spot of crime to recognise the culprit. Name the technique which is used for this purpose Name the material which in seperated from the sample by this technique? 


A drop of blood is collected by the police from the spot of crime to recognise the culprit. The technique Name is venipuncture ( pathology) is used for this purpose. DNA is that the material which in seperated from the sample by this technique.

3. Answer any one of the following question in about 40-60 words.

(b) Two primary functions of roots in all plants are fixation, absorption of water and mineral nutrients from the soil. Mention any two examples of some other functions performed by roots.


The root system is the descending (growing downwards) portion of the plant axis. When a seed germinates, radicle is the first organ to come out of it. It elongates to form primary or the tap root.
Root systems are mainly of two types:

(i) Tap root system — It is the root system that develops from the radicle and continues as the primary root (tap root) which gives off lateral roots. These provide very strong anchorage as they are able to reach very deep into the soil. It is the main root system of dicots e.g. gram, chinarose, neem.

(ii) Fibrous root system — In this root system, the primary root is short- lived.A cluster of slender, fiber-like roots arises from the base of the radicle and plumule which constitute the fibrous root system. They do  not branch profusely, are shallow and spread horizontally, hence cannot provide strong anchorage. Fibrous root system is the main root system of monocots, e.g. maize, grasses, wheat.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.

(b) Explain how size and structure of small intestine in humans is related to its functions.


The Small Intestine

Ironically, the longest part of the alimentary canal is the small intestine. It is a highly coiled structure of about 7.5 meters in length. It is a very narrow tube with a large internal surface area. It is the site of complete digestion in humans. It absorbs digested food completely. It secretes intestinal juice. It receives bile juice from the liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.

The small intestine is divided into three parts:

Functions of Small Intestine

Complete Digestion of Food

The partially digested food is absorbed by the duodenum of the small intestine along with the digestive juices from the liver, pancreas and its own walls.
The liver secretes the bile juice, which converts fat into  tiny droplets so that their digestion becomes easy.
The pancreas produces pancreatic juice that breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
The intestinal juice secreted by the walls of the small intestine breaks down starch and carbohydrates into simple sugars. These sugars are known as glucose. It also converts the proteins into amino acids.
All these simple, broken down forms are called the digested food.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.

(b) A person goes to doctor and complains of general weakness, chest  pain and blood in his sputum. He is also having persistent fever and cough. What is the person possibly suffering from? Name the pathogen responsible for the disease and its mode of transmission. Write any to precautionary measures he should take two safe guard for other family members.


Precautionary measures he should take two safe guard for other family Members :

1. Wash hands regularly. This is especially important after touching surfaces or objects that might be contaminated with respiratory droplets, or after touching persons who are ill with respiratory symptoms. Alcohol hand gels are an adequate substitute when soap and clean water are not readily available.

2. Maintain a clean living environment. If frequently touched surfaces are contaminated with respiratory droplets or secretions:

   o Wipe up visible material with paper towels and dispose of used towels in a plastic garbage bag

   o Disinfect using any standard household disinfectant 

• Take everyday preventive measures including the following: o Do not share eating utensils or drinking containers 

    o  Do not share other personal articles such as toothbrushes or towels with anyone else

• Staff should separate sleeping cots by 3-6 feet (1-2 meters), if possible, to reduce the potential for spread of respiratory droplets between evacuation center residents.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:

Prepare any one project out of the following projects given below.

(a) Demonstrate the effect of light on seed germination, plant shoot growth and leaf colour using material available in your surroundings. You can collect as much as information on this topic and prepare a report in your own style.


Plants deprived of light will lose their color and die. The shoots exposed  to “limited/no” sunlight had a yellow/white color due to the fact that photosynthesis could not occur. The lack of sunlight stunted photosynthesis and therefore the sprouts were not able to produce the chlorophyll needed to create a green color.

One important light response in plants is phototropism, which involves growth toward—or away from—a light source. Positive phototropism is growth towards a light source; negative phototropism is growth away from light.Most plants grow faster in the evening and at night than they do during the day. ... Plants can use the products of the days photosynthesis at night to aid in the uptake up water into their cells, which increases the turgor pressure of the cells and drives their enlargement.Day length is a little more complicated, especially in combination with temperature. ... Many plant species have day length triggers that determine when they grow vegetatively and when they bloom. They may be long-day plants or short-day plants. Some plants do not react to day length; they are called day-neutral.

The submission of TMAs The schedule for submission of the Secondary Course TMAs at AIs for both admission block are given below:

Table No. 1:
Public ExaminationBy Learners to study centersFeedback by the Subject Teacher to the Learner
April/May31st January15th February
October/November 31st July15th August

If the last date so mentioned happens to be a public holiday / Saturday / Sunday, for the reason, the next working day will be automatically treated as the last.

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